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Learn Sanskrit



Sanskrit is the primary sacred language of Hinduism and Mahāyāna Buddhism, a philosophical language in Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism and Sikhism. It was also a literary language that was in use as a lingua franca in ancient and medieval South Asia.

Sanskrit, meaning ‘perfected’ or ‘refined’, is one of the oldest, if not the oldest, of of all attested human languages. It belongs to the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European family. The oldest form of Sanskrit is Vedic Sanskrit that dates back to the 2nd millennium BCE. Known as ‘the mother of all languages,’ Sanskrit is the dominant classical language of the Indian subcontinent and one of the 22 official languages of India. It is also the liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism. Scholars distinguish between Vedic Sanskrit and its descendant, Classical Sanskrit, however these two varieties are very similar and differ mostly in a some points of phonology, grammar, and vocabulary. Originally, Sanskrit was considered not to be a separate language, but a refined way of speaking, a marker of status and education, studied and used by Brahmins. It existed alongside spoken vernaculars, called Prakrits, which later evolved into the modern Indo-Aryan languages. Sanskrit continued to be used as a first language long after it was no longer spoken.